XXVIII International Seminar and Award for Architecture and Urban Culture, THE NEW ARCHITECTURE, University of Camerino, Auditorium Benedetto XIII, Friday August 3rd 2018, 22.00
#3 Dividing and connecting
Talk with: Tom Rankin, Alessandro Camiz, Renato Capozzi, Giorgio Verdiani and Carlo Cellamare
With the Patrociny of “Storia della Città”
and of the Association for Historical Dialogue and Research- AHDR
Interrupted city is an itinerating seminar aimed to the study of new contact points across the divide of Nicosia, Cyprus. It represents a possible dialogue with the new potentials related to the crossing of the Buffer Zone, by rethinking the role of the checkpoints. This research affirms the temporary sense of separation and investigates the tools to identify dynamic and evolutionary factors, overcoming the present condition of the interrupted city. Interrupted city is therefore an opportunity to carry out this research and support, through the most diverse contributions, the preparation of an international workshop to be held in the summer 2019 by stimulating new approaches and collecting materials to develop new projects.
BUFFER ZONES AND DIVIDED CITIES:
Thur 14 June 2018
Launching the international urban
architecture workshop on divided cities
and buffer zones.
Prof. Tom Rankin, Sapienza DICEA and
CalPoly San Luis Obispo (USA)
moderates discussion with students from
the course “Ecological Urbanism.”
Arch. Paolo Pineschi (AKA Studio)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alessandro Camiz (Girne
Assist. Prof. Dr. Esther Giani (IUAV)
Jan Gadeyne (Temple University)
The urban settlement of Nicosia (former Ledra) started in Bronze Age on the two sides of the river Pedieos (Kanlı Dere), along the intersection of the valley route following that river, and the cross-valley route connecting the Pentadaktylos ridge and the Troodos ridge, and developed as an exchange point between the two sides of the river. Only in Byzantine times, the city became the capital of the island and was surrounded by a wall. During the Venetian rule, in 1567, new walls, designed by the Venetian engineers Giulio Savorgnano and Franscesco Barbaro, replaced the medieval ones. The construction of the new walls included the infi lling of the river within the city so to move its waters into a new moat surrounding the city.
Read more here
A. Camiz, The architecture of memory. Bridging the divided city of Nicosia, in Urban morphology and design. Joint research perspectives and methodological comparison: Italy, Spain, P. Carlotti, A. Camiz, C. Díez eds, U+D edition, Rome 2017, pp. 100-109.
seminar 1 : limiting the edge
Iowa State University, Rome Center – Saturday March 3, 2018
Una giornata di confronto e dialoghi sul tema delle barriere urbane, dei progetti interrotti e delle città divise. Il seminario ha la finalità di esplorare i diversi significati legati alla separazione e alla segregazione, a partire degli elementi fisici quali i muri e i grandi vuoti urbani per arrivare a considerare le barriere sociali, culturali e politiche, osservando i conflitti e le storie legate a territori chiusi da confini e demarcazioni.
1. Modelli urbani sospesi in un futuro possibile come illustrato nel lavoro di Jaime Correa (University of Miami School of Architecture -By Choice, not by Fate: redefining boundaries in the age of sea-level-rise ) dove viene presentata la visione di un territorio profondamente trasformato dall’innalzamento dei mari a causa del riscaldamento globale – un nuovo paesaggio invaso dall’acqua.
Correa immagina nuovi modelli tipologici per abitare e nuove forme di comunità; una dimensione di New Urbanism ispirata ai nuclei autosufficienti del passato. “The architect’s imagination should never be disengaged from the global future nor his vision should ever cease providing a multiplicity of controversial proposals before the next sea-level-rise crisis starts crawling upon us. Despite the fact that the commonly used urban tactics of retreat, abandonment, and/or re-building are not design options currently on the planning table, this project is precisely grounded upon that type of investigation.”
2. Il muro come testimonianza e come luogo rappresentativo di un’identità rivive nel progetto installazione di Gjergji Islami (Polytechnic University of Tirana Muri: the wall around the block of foreign embassies, Tirana); il progetto prende spunto da un evento simbolico messo in atto nel 1990 da un dimostrante (Ylli Bodinaku) che, per protestare contro il regime, si schianta con un Camion sul muro di confine dell’ambasciata tedesca di Tirana aprendo un varco per l’invasione delle persone.
Gjergj iIslami propone un percorso di un chilometro e mezzo, un sistema di spazi pubblici e di installazioni intorno al perimetro murato delle ambasciate per ricordare e per stimolare una riflessione sulla riconquista dello spazio urbano: “MURI is a conceptual urban intervention that brings to the attention the historical facts at the beginning of the ‘90s. The absurdity of its presence is a signal to see the barriers of the past that still model our life. MURI is an intervention that aims to regenerate an urban space by obtaining an open-air museum for a history that keeps going on”.
3. La separazione, l’interruzione della città, il conflitto, sono il centro dell’intervento di Alessandro Camiz (Girne American University Recycling the Border: Nicosia’s Buffer Zone) che promuove l’idea di un workshop per ripensare i limiti e i contorni della Buffer zone di Nicosia (Cipro). La città è divisa dal 1964 in due parti da un confine – una linea di demarcazione chiamata green line da quando il generale Peter Young, comandante delle forze inglesi a Cipro, tracciò con una matita verde sulla mappa di Nicosia una separazione tra i quartieri greci e turchi della capitale per sedare gli scontri tra le due comunità. Questa fascia, pur essendo una zona edificata è oggi completamente disabitata , uno spazio urbano sospeso e congelato nel tempo.
Il workshop si propone di studiare nuovi punti di contatto tra le due città, un possibile dialogo basato sulla capacità di immaginare nuove potenzialità legate agli attraversamenti della Buffer Zone e ripensare il ruolo dei checkpoint. Un lavoro complesso che vuole affermare il senso temporaneo di questa separazione e cercare gli strumenti per individuare dei fattori dinamici ed evolutivi, superando il presente e prefigurando il futuro della città.
Interrupted city rappresenta quindi l’occasione per portare avanti questa ricerca e supportare, attraverso i contributi più diversi, la preparazione del workshop stimolando nuovi approcci e raccogliendo durante l’arco di un anno i materiali per elaborare nuovi progetti e sperimentazioni.
4. Il rilevo dello spazio, l’indagine e la restituzione fedele delle caratteristiche fisiche dell’architettura e dei suoi confini, sono gli argomenti trattati da Giorgio Verdiani (Università degli studi di Firenze: Digital Survey for Borderline Architecture) che presenta alcune campagne di rilievo di manufatti complessi e spazi urbani che si configurano come margini costruiti.
I bastioni fortificati di Livorno, le campagne di indagine su alcuni siti dell’antichità, rappresentano delle occasioni per sperimentare tecnologie e approcci metodologici diversi; per comprendere, interpretare e restituire la complessità dello spazio costruito.
5. Dialoghi su Roma (Rethinking Public Space, Repairing Urban Wounds: A dialogue around Roma Interrotta, Fori Imperiali and the Tiber riverfront) con interventi di Tom Rankin (Cal Poly; sustainablerome.net ), Paolo Pineschi (Aka architettti), Jan Gadeyne (Cornell University);
lo spunto non poteva che partire da “ Roma Interrotta-” e dalla difficoltà di pensare la Città in chiave contemporanea. Carlo Argan scriveva a proposito di Roma interrotta: “l’aggettivo designa genericamente una condizione di sospensione, un arresto innaturale, intenzionale o provocato – “Roma è una città interrotta perché si è cessato di immaginarla”.
I progetti interrotti, le grandi indecisioni su Roma sono oggi una realtà su cui riflettere, un limite, una cronaca sulla quale ci si confronta non solo in ambito accademico e professionale ma anche nel quotidiano come comunità, come cittadinanza.
Tom Rankin presenta le attività di ricerca svolte e in particolare i risultati ottenuti con l’iniziativa di Piazza Tevere (Associazione Tevereterno), il fiume non solo come un luogo da ritrovare, per altro molto vissuto da romani e turisti, ma come polarità culturale dove promuovere arte, eventi e sperimentazione. “The challenge today is not growth but restraint, not reinventing the city but rethinking how we live in the cities we have inherited”
Il Muro, i muraglioni del Tevere diventano degli enormi schermi dove mettere in atto una nuova scena urbana. L’artista è William Kentridge, l’opera, Triumphs and Laments (2016), ha un successo e una risonanza enorme; la città reagisce a questo evento, realizzato attraverso una tecnica che crea delle figure gigantesche rimuovendo la patina depositata sui muraglioni, con molto entusiasmo e partecipazione, testimoniando un dialogo possibile tra la città e l’arte contemporanea. “Engaging the local community by working directly with emerging artists and musicians on a series of visual and sound experiments, exploring the theme of Rome’s greatest victories and worst defeats throughout history.”-William Kentridge, artist
 Il progetto del ’78 prendeva in esame l’area descritta nella Pianta di Roma di Giovan Battista Nolli (1748), ultimo grande disegno urbano della città.Con i progetti dei dodici architetti invitati – Piero Sartogo, Costantino Dardi, Antoine Grumbach, James Stirling, Paolo Portoghesi, Romaldo Giurgola, Robert Venturi, Colin Rowe, Michael Graves, Leon Krier, Aldo Rossi, Robert Krier – fu allestita una mostra ai Mercati Traianei di Roma.Roma interrotta è diventata nel tempo una vera icona del progetto urbano, in ragione di un suo itinerario espositivo internazionale che ha toccato tra l’altro sedi prestigiose come il Cooper Hewitt Musem di New York, l’ArchitecturalAssociation di Londra, il Centre Georges Pompidou di Parigi, il Centro de Cultura Contemporanea di Barcellona.
Paolo Pineschi riprende il tema dei progetti interrotti e illustra come la città di Roma sia prigioniera di visioni progettuali incerte o sospese che tendono a creare vuoti decisionali e schieramenti contrapposti. Un caso emblematico di questa situazione è l’Area Archeologica Centrale, un territorio controverso dove opposte visioni e un dibattito infinito lasciano sul campo le macerie poco comprensibili dell’antichità e della stratificazione storica, oltre che spazi inospitali.
Intanto si continua a progettare e a promuovere idee senza una direzione di marcia precisa; come la linea di metropolitana C che ancora non riesce a raggiungere Piazza Venezia, almeno per i prossimi anni.
JanGadeyne interviene sulla necessità di rendere accessibili e fruibili i grandi segni della città, quindi, in analogia al Tevere e all’area Archeologica Centrale, anche un monumento lineare come le mura Aureliane potrebbe ritrovare quello che ha perso ovvero, una funzione urbana e una nuova identità magari legata ai percorsi “dolci” e alla comprensione della complessità.
1 Ulaanbaatar, a Lab for sustainable urban renewal
|P. Pineschi Aka Architetti, Domitilla Morandi|
|The territory of Mongolia is three times more extended than France and it is vast and uncontaminated; the density of the population is the lowest in the world and beyond its capital city and a few other small towns, the rest of the country is occupied by small conglomerates of scattered houses and steppes. Today, the Mongols still live in small family communities formed of one or two “GER”, the typical felt tents enabling them to move with the herds. In the last few years, the country has experienced a strong urbanization and nowadays, 58% of the inhabitants live in urban centers. The main centre is Ulaan Batar, the capital city and the economic centre of the country, where, by now, 38% of Mongolian population is concentrated. In a few years, in response to the big exodus from rural areas, construction has greatly increased in urban areas without following any urban development plan. In Ulaan Batar, new skyscrapers coexist with the “yurte” (or “ger”), with Soviet style buildings from the 40s, with buildings in reinforced concrete of later years: the attractive power of the city and the lack of dwellings has brought about a huge aggregation of gers, where at least six-hundred thousands of people live, out of the city center.
Moreover, Mongolia is a country still lacking in infrastructures. An organized road network does not exist, communication routes are nothing but trails or simple tracks dug by passing vehicles. The fast urbanization process has been accompanied by new forms of destitution and alienation. The urban model is by now the objective for the greatest part of the population and constantly generates new requests with regards to quality of life, social organization and sustainable management of the resources of this community.
Furthermore, the capital city has a big problem of atmospheric pollution caused by wood and charcoal combustion from heating and cooking stoves. During the winter months, the normal urban view is dim an this has a negative impact on human health and on life in general. Given the rapid development, it is necessary, on the one hand, to build houses to accommodate the flux of aspiring city dwellers, on the other, to contrast it with an urban policy operating in entire parts of the city. This policy should entail the transformation/regeneration of a few portions of the urban fabric, within a global idea of development which may trigger economic, social and cultural regeneration.
To this end and in the light of what has emerged in the field of the European policies of the last two decades, the so-called “place-based” approach is to be reinforced, thus responding to the specific needs of the territory more adequately, through an accurate analysis of the city requirements. Furthermore, It is also necessary to recognize the interdependence between territories, by strengthening the role of local and regional agents in territorial policies.
1.1 A Lab for sustainable renewal
Mongolia underwent a strong urbanization in the last few years and today 58% of the inhabitants live in urban centers. In a few years, construction has strongly increased in urban areas, in response to the need of accommodating the big exodus from rural areas. The main city and the main economic center is Ulaanbaatar, the capital city, hosting 38% of the total population of the country. Mongolia is also the world second most polluted country and as such no project can overlook this data.
In 2012 Mongolia was the first country to create a “ministerial portfolio for “green development”, which enabled the protection of land and water, putting a moratorium on new mining exploration licenses. The wind farm of Salkhit Uul, also known as “Windy Mountain”, was inaugurated on World Environment Day.
Examples like Mongolia lead to believe that sustainable development is possible and profitable for those who decide to carry out an environment-friendly territorial planning. The “green” approach also characterizes the policy papers of the country, like in the 2012 report ” Mongolia’s sustainable development agenda: progresses, bottlenecks and vision for the future” in which it is explicitly declared:
“Natural resources and environmental management need to be enhanced in coherence with the green economy concept in all sectors along with creation of a responsible body in line ministries. It should be discouraged for state administrations to make decisions on any sector wise issues without involving this body. The same applies for international cooperation.”
Obviously in light of the above, the 2010 World Bank study “Enhancing Policies and Practices for Ger Area Development in Ulaanbaatar” and the 2020 Masterplan, other fundamental elements emerge which deserve a particular attention during the interventions on the city, such as:
- Access roads within Ger areas: The majority of the residents in Ger areas are lower-income and are further disadvantaged by very poor access to markets, work places, education and other services.
- Better heating systems to improve efficiency and reduce air pollution.
- Solid waste management and community infrastructure
- Research on affordable collective housing in mid-tier Gers
- From a monocentric city to a multi-centric, modern city.
1.2 Urban Agenda and methodology approaches
It is on these principles that the design activity of the work group has started to concentrate by collecting data, involving diverse disciplinary fields and putting the urban space at the core of research: the city as the driving force for development-a place of centrality, opportunities and challenges.
The proposed methodology approach is based on the following themes and strategies such as:
- The composition of the aspects structuring the territorial projects in full accordance with the planning instruments in action and the development policies (Urban Agenda)
- The composition of urban projects (smart city, etc.) through the selection of models of land use and occupation, sustainable and consistent with places and local resources.
- The need for qualifying projects for the city and for human life (houses, green spaces, public spaces, etc) through the planning of new polarities, new urban spaces and new communication networks.
- A particular attention to the environment in urban and territorial planning, through the set-up of ecological networks and the redefinition (redesigning) of an appropriate relationship between the country and the city
- The quality of architecture as a key objective on which the choices should be based and the new image and form of the city should be planned
- The internal relationships within the city: residence, work, leisure, public space. Triggering requalification processes of suburban areas by redesigning the urban boundaries.
- The house in relation to tradition, rediscovering modes and uses of everyday life to develop new housing typologies.
- The” places of identity”-culture, tradition, religion, arts and music
2 New urbanization and infrastructure
2.1 Masterplan Main Targets
- Ulaanbaatar will be a safe, healthy and green city that is resilient to climate change
- Ulaanbaatar will provide a livable environment for its residents through appropriat land use planning, infrastructure and housing.
- Ulaanbaatar will be a city with good governance and adeveloped legal environment that serves the general public and private sector.
- Ulaanbaatar will encourage the further development of seelements,
- towns and satellite cities outside the city center.
- Ulaanbaatar will be one of Asia’s tourist destination cities
- Ulaanbaatar will have an internationally competitive business center and develop as a world-standard capital city.
- From a monocentric city to a multicentric, modern city. City parks and green areas
- Improve and extend the road and public transport network. Transport – Oriented Development
- Strategy for redevelopment of ger areas: new residential areas will be suitable for mongolian culture and traditions and include a range of affordable apartment types that meet high quality livings Standards
- Urban water cycle: quality & quantity of water distribution, access and usage
2.1 Starting points for the project in the Khoroo 1 of the Songino Khairkhan District in Ulambaatar
Ulaanbaatar is served by the ChinggisKhaan International Airport it’s 18 km southwest of the city. There are rail connections to the Trans-Siberian railway via Naushki and to the Chinese railway system via Jining. This rail route has one line, and starts at the west side of the capital at the Tolgoit Station, in Khoroo 1, through the city centre to the east side of the city terminating at the Amgalan Station. There are a total of eight stations on the route.
Ulaanbaatar is connected by road to most of the major towns in Mongolia, but most roads in Mongolia are unpaved and unmarked and road travel can be difficult. Even within the city, not all roads are paved and some of the ones that are paved are not in good condition. The redevelopment of the ger areas will take a partnership approach between the government, private developers and citizens, to do the following:
– Implement urbanization, proper land use, and re-planning activities with direct partecipation of land
– Develop sub and micro centers in the ger areas.
– Eliminate environmental pollution and its impacts by implementing waste minimization technology.
– Support opportunities for family businesses and entrepreneurship.
– New residential areas will be suitable for Mongolian culture and traditions and include a range of affordable apartment types that meet high quality living standards
The intention is to encourage an equitable model of development, that can foster at the same time big works and a widespread urban renovation.
The large-scale urban plan coexists with district-scale projects to rethink public spaces, create new opportunities and reconstruct the system of relations within the city.
Investments and resources are not only concentrated on single interventions, as the benefits are extended to larger areas, triggering citywide processes to contrast marginalization and involve in the transformation a large part of the population.
2.2 The conceptual scheme: the “comet” urban structure
The conceptual scheme chosen for building new residential units and for triggering processes of urban regeneration is represented by a principle defined as a “comet”, namely an urban structure formed of a nucleus hosting the big economic and functional representatives with large buildings- a surrounding area devoted to demolition and reconstruction, to recovery and urban regeneration- and a green trail with a high environmental quality, characterized by the presence of territorial services in support of the inhabitants and of the Ger settlements.
This scheme permits to link different urban areas in a well-structured system, oriented both to the creation of new economic districts and to the research of a balance with the ecological resources and the suburban settlements.
This is an innovative approach based on the will to create a deep exchange and a new bond between the densely-constructed contexts of the city and the low-density rural space, assuming the possibility to concentrate the building process in some highly-accessible areas and reconnecting the scattered constructed lots through the great networks of services and the wide areas of redeveloped territories.
The scopes of intervention, with regards to Mongolian reality, correspond to the possibility of taking an active part in the process of urban regeneration, by affirming responsible and sustainable development models. The contribution of a multidisciplinary group with a particular experience in wide-ranging projects, in the dynamics of urban transformation, in great infrastructural projects and in urban regeneration can be a precious support in the different phases of urban development planning-from decision-making and strategic aspects to practical implementation, to the scale of urban design projects.
In particular, specific planning actions could focus on the most important critical issues in the territory such as the lack of services and infrastructures, the development of new urban contexts and the construction of residential contexts, preserving a strong physical, functional and identity bond with historical characters and local culture.